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establishment of sister chromatid cohesion N-acetyltransferase 1 OKDB#: 5534
 Symbols: ESCO1 Species: human
 Synonyms: CTF, ECO1, EFO1, ESO1, A930014I12Rik  Locus: 18q11.2 in Homo sapiens

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General Comment NCBI Summary: ESCO1 belongs to a conserved family of acetyltransferases involved in sister chromatid cohesion (Hou and Zou, 2005 [PubMed 15958495]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
General function Enzyme
Cellular localization
Ovarian function Oocyte maturation
Comment The cohesion establishment factor Esco1 acetylates α-tubulin to ensure proper spindle assembly in oocyte meiosis. Lu Y et al. (2018) Esco1 has been reported to function as a cohesion establishment factor that mediates chromosome cohesion and segregation in mitotic cells. However, its exact roles in meiosis have not been clearly defined. Here, we document that Esco1 is expressed and localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Depletion of Esco1 by siRNA microinjection causes the meiotic progression arrest with a severe spindle abnormality and chromosome misalignment, which is coupled with a higher incidence of the erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments and activation of spindle assembly checkpoint. In addition, depletion of Esco1 leads to the impaired microtubule stability shown by the weakened resistance ability to the microtubule depolymerizing drug nocodazole and the decreased level of acetylated α-tubulin. Conversely, overexpression of Esco1 causes hyperacetylation of α-tubulin and spindle defects. Moreover, we find that Esco1 binds to α-tubulin and is required for its acetylation. The reduced acetylation level of α-tubulin in Esco1-depleted oocytes can be restored by the ectopic expression of exogenous wild-type Esco1 but not enzymatically dead Esco1-G768D. Purified wild-type Esco1 instead of mutant Esco1-G768D acetylates the synthesized peptide of α-tubulin in vitro. Collectively, our data assign a novel function to Esco1 as a microtubule regulator during oocyte meiotic maturation beyond its conventional role in chromosome cohesion.//////////////////
Expression regulated by
Ovarian localization Oocyte, Cumulus
Comment SA1/SA2 cohesion proteins and SIRT1-NAD+ deacetylase modulate telomere homeostasis in cumulus cells and are eligible biomarkers of ovarian aging. Valerio D et al. (2018) Are cohesins SA1/SA2 and the NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 involved in telomere homeostasis of cumulus cells and thus eligible as biomarkers of follicular physiology and ovarian aging? SA1/SA2 cohesins and SIRT1 are associated with telomere length in cumulus cells and may be eligible biomarkers of follicular physiology and ovarian aging. In somatic cells, cohesins SA1/SA2 mediate sister chromatid cohesion at the telomere termini (for SA1) and along chromatid arms (for SA2). The NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), which preserves DNA integrity from oxidative stress, may also modulate genome stability and telomere length. Collectively 280 cumulus/oocyte complex samples were recovered from a total of 50 women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Cumulus cells were separated from the oocyte-cumulus complex. DNA and total mRNA were extracted from cumulus cells and assayed for telomere length and for SA1, SA2 and SIRT1 gene expression profiling. Telomere length was determined by quantitave PCR and analyzed relative to the single copy of the housekeeping gene (albumin) to generate a T/S ratio (Telomere/single copy gene). Gene expression levels of SA1, SA2 and SIRT1 mRNA were assayed by quantitative RT-PCR and confirmed by western blotting and immunofluorescent studies (SIRT1). SA1/SA2 and SIRT1 gene expression levels and telomere length analysis of patients/samples were ranked in relation to their clinical setting parameters (BMI, age) and to the number of oocyte retrieved. SA1 and SA2 transcripts were both detected in all cumulus cells analyzed and the relative amount showed a clear decreasing trend according to the age of patients. A significant increase in SA1 and SA2 was disclosed in high responder women (>6 oocytes retrieved) compared to poor responders (<4 oocytes) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, statistically significant positive correlations were also recorded between the transcripts levels of the two cohesin molecules (r = 0.89; P < 0.05) and, to a lesser extent, between telomere length and SA1 (r = 0.42; P < 0.001) and SA2 (r = 0.36; P < 0.001) mRNA levels. SIRT1 expression was also significantly increased in high responders (>6 oocytes) compared to poor responders. Significant correlations were found between SIRT1 and SA1 (r = 0.69; P < 0.001), between SIRT1 and SA2 (r = 0.78; P < 0.001), and between SIRT1 and telomere length (r = 0.36; P < 0.001). However, in the older patient group (>38 years), SIRT1 mRNA levels were twice as high as the levels recorded in the younger patient cohort (<34 years). Western blot analysis and immunofluorescent studies confirmed the increments in SIRT1 protein levels in patients over 38 years old. N/A. Cumulus/oocyte complexes were retrieved by patients undergoing ovarian stimulation protocol for IVF. We cannot exclude the possibility that different stimulation protocols affect the correlations highlighted in this study. Future investigations should shed light on cumulus cells molecular profile according to different stimulation protocols. The overall results of our study point to the involvement of cohesins SA1/SA2 and SIRT1 deacetylase in telomere homeostasis in cumulus cells and highlight their possible eligibility as biomarkers of follicular physiology and ovarian aging. Merck Serono S.P.A Italy sponsored the study with financial support. There are no competing interests to declare.//////////////////
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created: Jan. 25, 2018, 1:35 p.m. by: system   email:
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last update: May 4, 2018, 10:58 a.m. by: hsueh    email:

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