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since 01/2001:

prokineticin 2 OKDB#: 5249
 Symbols: PROK2 Species: human
 Synonyms: BV8, HH4, PK2, KAL4, MIT1  Locus: 3p13 in Homo sapiens

For retrieval of Nucleotide and Amino Acid sequences please go to: OMIM Entrez Gene
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General Comment NCBI Summary: This gene encodes a protein expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock that may function as the output component of the circadian clock. The secreted form of the encoded protein may also serve as a chemoattractant for neuronal precursor cells in the olfactory bulb. Proteins from other vertebrates which are similar to this gene product were isolated based on homology to snake venom and secretions from frog skin, and have been shown to have diverse functions. Mutations in this gene are associated with Kallmann syndrome 4. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
General function Hormone, Cytokine
Cellular localization Secreted
Ovarian function
Expression regulated by
Ovarian localization Granulosa
Comment Transcriptomic Analysis and Meta-Analysis of Human Granulosa and Cumulus Cells. Burnik Papler T et al. (2015) Specific gene expression in oocytes and its surrounding cumulus (CC) and granulosa (GC) cells is needed for successful folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation. The aim of the present study was to compare genome-wide gene expression and biological functions of human GC and CC. Individual GC and CC were derived from 37 women undergoing IVF procedures. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays, followed by a meta-analysis. Results were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. There were 6029 differentially expressed genes (q < 10-4); of which 650 genes had a log2 FC ≥ 2. After the meta-analysis there were 3156 genes differentially expressed. Among these there were genes that have previously not been reported in human somatic follicular cells, like prokineticin 2 (PROK2), higher expressed in GC, and pregnancy up-regulated nonubiquitous CaM kinase (PNCK), higher expressed in CC. Pathways like inflammatory response and angiogenesis were enriched in GC, whereas in CC, cell differentiation and multicellular organismal development were among enriched pathways. In conclusion, transcriptomes of GC and CC as well as biological functions, are distinctive for each cell subpopulation. By describing novel genes like PROK2 and PNCK, expressed in GC and CC, we upgraded the existing data on human follicular biology.//////////////////
Follicle stages Antral
Mutations 0 mutations
Genomic Region show genomic region
Phenotypes and GWAS show phenotypes and GWAS
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created: Aug. 31, 2015, 12:31 p.m. by: system   email:
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last update: Aug. 31, 2015, 12:32 p.m. by: hsueh    email:

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