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growth differentiation factor 2 OKDB#: 5088
 Symbols: GDF2 Species: human
 Synonyms: BMP9, HHT5, BMP-9  Locus: 10q11.22 in Homo sapiens

For retrieval of Nucleotide and Amino Acid sequences please go to: OMIM Entrez Gene
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General Comment NCBI Summary: This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate each subunit of the disulfide-linked homodimer. This protein regulates cartilage and bone development, angiogenesis and differentiation of cholinergic central nervous system neurons. Mutations in this gene are associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]
General function Ligand, Growth factor
Cellular localization Secreted
Ovarian function Steroid metabolism
Comment BMP-9 downregulates StAR expression and progesterone production by activating both SMAD1/5/8 and SMAD2/3 signaling pathways in human granulosa-lutein cells obtained from gonadotropins induced ovarian cycles. Fang L et al. (2021) Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are expressed in different cell types of the human ovarian follicle and play important roles in the regulation of ovarian function. BMP-9, also known as growth differentiation factor-2 (GDF-2), belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily. BMP-9 is mainly synthesized in the liver and secreted into the blood which allows it to regulate various physiological and pathological functions. To date, the expression of BMP-9 in the human ovary and its function in human granulosa cells remains unknown. In the present study, we detect the protein expression of BMP-9 in the human follicular fluid. Using the primary culture of human granulosa-lutein (hGL) cells obtained from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization as a cell model, we show that treatment with BMP-9 downregulates steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and suppresses progesterone (P4) production. The expression levels of the P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) are not affected by BMP-9 treatment. Mechanistically, treatment of hGL cells with BMP-9 activates both SMAD1/5/8 and SMAD2/3 signaling pathways. Blocking the activations of SMAD1/5/8 and SMAD2/3 by pharmacological inhibitors or knockdown of SMAD4 attenuates the inhibitory effects of BMP-9 on StAR expression and P4 production. This study reveals a novel function of BMP-9 in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis.//////////////////Regulatory role of BMP-9 in steroidogenesis by rat ovarian granulosa cells. Hosoya T et al. (2015) BMPs expressed in the ovary differentially regulate steroidogenesis by granulosa cells. BMP-9, a circulating BMP, is associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation in various tissues. However, the effects of BMP-9 on ovarian function have yet to be elucidated. Here we investigated BMP-9 actions on steroidogenesis using rat primary granulosa cells. BMP-9 potently suppressed FSH-induced progesterone production, whereas it did not affect FSH-induced estradiol production by granulosa cells. The effects of BMP-9 on FSH-induced steroidogenesis were not influenced by the presence of oocytes. FSH-induced cAMP synthesis and FSH-induced mRNA expression of steroidogenic factors, including StAR, P450scc, 3βHSD2 and FSHR, were suppressed by treatment with BMP-9. BMP-9 mRNA expression was detected in granulosa cells but not in oocytes. BMP-9 readily activated Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and Id-1 transcription in granulosa cells. Analysis using ALK inhibitors indicated that BMP-9 actions were mediated via type-I receptors other than ALK-2, -3 and -6. Furthermore, experiments using extracellular domains (ECDs) for BMP type-I and -II receptor constructs revealed that the effects of BMP-9 were reversed by ECDs for ALK-1 and BMPRII. Thus, the functional receptors for BMP-9 in granulosa cells were most likely to be the complex of ALK-1 and BMPRII. Collectively, the results of the present study showed that BMP-9 can affect luteinization and that there are two possible sources of BMP-9, serum and granulosa cells in the ovary.//////////////////
Expression regulated by
Ovarian localization Granulosa, Follicular Fluid
Follicle stages
Mutations 0 mutations
Genomic Region show genomic region
Phenotypes and GWAS show phenotypes and GWAS
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created: Jan. 21, 2015, 12:58 p.m. by: system   email:
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last update: July 20, 2021, 9:23 a.m. by: hsueh    email:

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