The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. This gene is ubiquitously expressed, and at higher levels than other TLR genes. Different length transcripts presumably resulting from use of alternative polyadenylation site, and/or from alternative splicing, have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Toll-like receptors and high mobility group box 1 in granulosa cells during bovine follicle maturation. Xie Y et al. (2019) Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are present in the ovaries and reproductive tract of various mammals. The biological function of TLR during ovulation is one of the main contents in the research of reproductive immunology. In this study, we found that messenger RNA levels of TLR1-TLR10 in granulosa cells were different, and TLRs and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in granulosa cells of large follicles were significantly higher than those of small and middle follicles. Coimmunoprecipitation results showed that HMGB1 interacts with TLR2 in granulosa cells, especially large follicles. The result of immunohistochemistry showed that TLRs and HMGB1 were present in granulosa cell layer of ovarian follicles. We also found 25 mIU/ml follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) significantly upregulated the expression of TLRs and HMGB1. These results suggest that TLR2/4 and HMGB1 in granulosa cells may be involved in the ovarian innate immune and ovarian follicular maturation, regulated by FSH. However, further research of the function and mechanisms of TLRs and HMGB1 in granulosa cells are needed.//////////////////
Toll-like receptors expression in follicular cells of patients with poor ovarian response. Taghavi SA 2014 et al.
Poor ovarian response (POR) to gonadotropin stimulation has led to a significant decline in success rate of fertility treatment. The immune system may play an important role in pathophysiology of POR by dysfunctions of cytokines and the growth factor network, and the presence of ovarian auto-antibodies. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 genes in follicular cells and concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), as major parts of innate immunity, in follicular fluid (FF) obtained from POR women in comparison with normal women.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In this case-control study, 20 infertile POR patients and 20 normal women took part in this study and underwent controlled ovarian stimulation. The FF was obtained from the largest follicle (>18 mm). The FF was centrifuged and cellular pellet was then used for evaluation of expression of TLRs and COX2 genes by real-time PCR. FF was used for quantitative analysis for IL-6, IL-8 and MIF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
TLR1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and COX2 gene expression were significantly higher in POR (p<0.05). Concentration of IL-6, IL-8 and MIF proteins was significantly increased in POR compared with normal women (p<0.05).
These findings support the hypothesis that the immune system may be involved in pathophysiology of POR through TLRs.