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thioredoxin interacting protein OKDB#: 4761
 Symbols: TXNIP Species: human
 Synonyms: THIF, VDUP1, ARRDC6, HHCPA78, EST01027  Locus: 1q21.1 in Homo sapiens

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DNA Microarrays
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General Comment Single-Cell Transcriptomic Atlas of Primate Ovarian Aging. Wang S et al. (2020) Molecular mechanisms of ovarian aging and female age-related fertility decline remain unclear. We surveyed the single-cell transcriptomic landscape of ovaries from young and aged non-human primates (NHPs) and identified seven ovarian cell types with distinct gene-expression signatures, including oocyte and six types of ovarian somatic cells. In-depth dissection of gene-expression dynamics of oocytes revealed four subtypes at sequential and stepwise developmental stages. Further analysis of cell-type-specific aging-associated transcriptional changes uncovered the disturbance of antioxidant signaling specific to early-stage oocytes and granulosa cells, indicative of oxidative damage as a crucial factor in ovarian functional decline with age. Additionally, inactivated antioxidative pathways, increased reactive oxygen species, and apoptosis were observed in granulosa cells from aged women. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the cell-type-specific mechanisms underlying primate ovarian aging at single-cell resolution, revealing new diagnostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for age-related human ovarian disorders. Expression of this gene is decreased in aging granulosa cells. //////////////////

NCBI Summary: This gene encodes a thioredoxin-binding protein that is a member of the alpha arrestin protein family. Thioredoxin is a thiol-oxidoreductase that is a major regulator of cellular redox signaling which protects cells from oxidative stress. This protein inhibits the antioxidative function of thioredoxin resulting in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and cellular stress. This protein also functions as a regulator of cellular metabolism and of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This protein may also function as a tumor suppressor. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
General function
Cellular localization Cytoplasmic
Ovarian function
Comment Thioredoxin-interacting protein regulates glucose metabolism and affects cytoplasmic streaming in mouse oocytes. Lee SY 2013 et al. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) regulates intracellular redox state and prompts oxidative stress by binding to and inhibiting Thioredoxin (Trx). In addition, via a Trx-independent mechanism, Txnip regulates glucose metabolism and thus maintains intracellular glucose levels. Previously, we found Txnip mRNA highly expressed in immature germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes, but currently there is no report describing the role of Txnip in oocytes. Therefore, we conducted the present study to determine the function of Txnip in mouse oocytes' maturation and meiosis by using RNA interference (RNAi) method. Upon specific depletion of Txnip, 79.5% of oocytes were arrested at metaphase I (MI) stage. Time-lapse video microscopy analysis revealed that the formation of granules in the oocyte cytoplasm increased concurrent with retarded cytoplasmic streaming after Txnip RNAi treatment. Txnip RNAi-treated oocytes had upregulated glucose uptake and lactate production. To confirm the supposition that mechanism responsible for these observed phenomena involves increased lactate in oocytes, we cultured oocytes in high lactate medium and observed the same increased granule formation and retarded cytoplasmic streaming as found by Txnip RNAi. The MI-arrested oocytes exhibited scattered microtubules and aggregated chromosomes indicating that actin networking was disturbed by Txnip RNAi. Therefore, we conclude that Txnip is a critical regulator of glucose metabolism in oocytes and is involved in maintaining cytoplasmic streaming in mouse oocytes. /////////////////////////
Expression regulated by
Ovarian localization Oocyte, Granulosa
Comment Differential Gene Expression in Granulosa Cells from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients with and without Insulin Resistance: Identification of Susceptibility Gene Sets through Network Analysis. Kaur S et al. Context:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous, genetically complex, endocrine disorder of uncertain etiology in women.Objective:Our aim was to compare the gene expression profiles in stimulated granulosa cells of PCOS women with and without insulin resistance vs. matched controls.Research Design and Methods:This study included 12 normal ovulatory women (controls), 12 women with PCOS without evidence for insulin resistance (PCOS non-IR), and 16 women with insulin resistance (PCOS-IR) undergoing in vitro fertilization. Granulosa cell gene expression profiling was accomplished using Affymetrix Human Genome-U133 arrays. Differentially expressed genes were classified according to gene ontology using ingenuity pathway analysis tools. Microarray results for selected genes were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR.Results:A total of 211 genes were differentially expressed in PCOS non-IR and PCOS-IR granulosa cells (fold change=1.5; P=0.001) vs. matched controls. Diabetes mellitus and inflammation genes were significantly increased in PCOS-IR patients. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed higher expression of NCF2 (2.13-fold), TCF7L2 (1.92-fold), and SERPINA1 (5.35-fold). Increased expression of inflammation genes ITGAX (3.68-fold) and TAB2 (1.86-fold) was confirmed in PCOS non-IR. Different cardiometabolic disease genes were differentially expressed in the two groups. Decreased expression of CAV1 (-3.58-fold) in PCOS non-IR and SPARC (-1.88-fold) in PCOS-IR was confirmed. Differential expression of genes involved in TGF-?signaling (IGF2R, increased; and HAS2, decreased), and oxidative stress (TXNIP, increased) was confirmed in both groupsConclusions:Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes linked to diabetes mellitus, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and infertility in the granulosa cells of PCOS women with and without insulin resistance. Because these dysregulated genes are also involved in oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and insulin signaling, we hypothesize that these genes may be involved in follicular growth arrest and metabolic disorders associated with the different phenotypes of PCOS.
Follicle stages
Mutations 2 mutations

Species: mouse
Mutation name:
type: null mutation
fertility: fertile
Comment: Thioredoxin-interacting protein deficiency disrupts the fasting-feeding metabolic transition. Sheth SS et al. (2005) Through a positional cloning approach, the thioredoxin-interacting protein gene (Txnip) was recently identified as causal for a form of combined hyperlipidemia in mice (Bodnar, J. S., A. Chatterjee, L. W. Castellani, D. A. Ross, J. Ohmen, J. Cavalcoli, C. Wu, K. M. Dains, J. Catanese, M. Chu, S. S. Sheth, K. Charugundla, P. Demant, D. B. West, P. de Jong, and A. J. Lusis. 2002. Positional cloning of the combined hyperlipidemia gene Hyplip1. Nat. Genet. 30: 110-116). We now show that Txnip-deficient mice in the fed state exhibit a metabolic profile similar to fasted mice, including increased levels of plasma ketone bodies and free fatty acids, decreased glucose, and increased hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and acyl-CoA oxidase. Dramatic differences in the expression of key metabolic enzymes were also observed in other tissues, and the fat-to-muscle ratio of Txnip-deficient mice was increased by approximately 40%. We demonstrate an effect of Txnip on the redox status, as the Txnip-deficient mice in the fed state had a significant increase in the ratio of NADH to NAD(+). Surprisingly, we observed that Txnip-deficient mice and wild-type mice had similar levels of thioredoxin activity, suggesting that the effects of Txnip deficiency may be mediated in part by other interactions. These results indicate a role for Txnip in the metabolic response to feeding and the maintenance of the redox status.//////////////////

Species: human
Mutation name:
type: naturally occurring
fertility: fertile
Comment: Positional cloning of the combined hyperlipidemia gene Hyplip1. Bodnar JS et al. (2002) Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL, MIM-144250) is a common, multifactorial and heterogeneous dyslipidemia predisposing to premature coronary artery disease and characterized by elevated plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, or both. We identified a mutant mouse strain, HcB-19/Dem (HcB-19), that shares features with FCHL, including hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, elevated plasma apolipoprotein B and increased secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The hyperlipidemia results from spontaneous mutation at a locus, Hyplip1, on distal mouse chromosome 3 in a region syntenic with a 1q21-q23 FCHL locus identified in Finnish, German, Chinese and US families. We fine-mapped Hyplip1 to roughly 160 kb, constructed a BAC contig and sequenced overlapping BACs to identify 13 candidate genes. We found substantially decreased mRNA expression for thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip). Sequencing of the critical region revealed a Txnip nonsense mutation in HcB-19 that is absent in its normolipidemic parental strains. Txnip encodes a cytoplasmic protein that binds and inhibits thioredoxin, a major regulator of cellular redox state. The mutant mice have decreased CO2 production but increased ketone body synthesis, suggesting that altered redox status down-regulates the citric-acid cycle, sparing fatty acids for triglyceride and ketone body production. These results reveal a new pathway of potential clinical significance that contributes to plasma lipid metabolism.//////////////////

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created: Aug. 21, 2012, 9:35 a.m. by: hsueh   email:
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last update: Feb. 6, 2020, 2:21 p.m. by: hsueh    email:

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