Differential Gene Expression in Granulosa Cells from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients with and without Insulin Resistance: Identification of Susceptibility Gene Sets through Network Analysis. Kaur S et al. Context:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous, genetically complex, endocrine disorder of uncertain etiology in women.Objective:Our aim was to compare the gene expression profiles in stimulated granulosa cells of PCOS women with and without insulin resistance vs. matched controls.Research Design and Methods:This study included 12 normal ovulatory women (controls), 12 women with PCOS without evidence for insulin resistance (PCOS non-IR), and 16 women with insulin resistance (PCOS-IR) undergoing in vitro fertilization. Granulosa cell gene expression profiling was accomplished using Affymetrix Human Genome-U133 arrays. Differentially expressed genes were classified according to gene ontology using ingenuity pathway analysis tools. Microarray results for selected genes were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR.Results:A total of 211 genes were differentially expressed in PCOS non-IR and PCOS-IR granulosa cells (fold change=1.5; P=0.001) vs. matched controls. Diabetes mellitus and inflammation genes were significantly increased in PCOS-IR patients. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed higher expression of NCF2 (2.13-fold), TCF7L2 (1.92-fold), and SERPINA1 (5.35-fold). Increased expression of inflammation genes ITGAX (3.68-fold) and TAB2 (1.86-fold) was confirmed in PCOS non-IR. Different cardiometabolic disease genes were differentially expressed in the two groups. Decreased expression of CAV1 (-3.58-fold) in PCOS non-IR and SPARC (-1.88-fold) in PCOS-IR was confirmed. Differential expression of genes involved in TGF-?signaling (IGF2R, increased; and HAS2, decreased), and oxidative stress (TXNIP, increased) was confirmed in both groupsConclusions:Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes linked to diabetes mellitus, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and infertility in the granulosa cells of PCOS women with and without insulin resistance. Because these dysregulated genes are also involved in oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and insulin signaling, we hypothesize that these genes may be involved in follicular growth arrest and metabolic disorders associated with the different phenotypes of PCOS.
type: null mutation
Comment: Thioredoxin-interacting protein deficiency disrupts the fasting-feeding metabolic transition. Sheth SS et al. (2005) Through a positional cloning approach, the thioredoxin-interacting protein gene (Txnip) was recently identified as causal for a form of combined hyperlipidemia in mice (Bodnar, J. S., A. Chatterjee, L. W. Castellani, D. A. Ross, J. Ohmen, J. Cavalcoli, C. Wu, K. M. Dains, J. Catanese, M. Chu, S. S. Sheth, K. Charugundla, P. Demant, D. B. West, P. de Jong, and A. J. Lusis. 2002. Positional cloning of the combined hyperlipidemia gene Hyplip1. Nat. Genet. 30: 110-116). We now show that Txnip-deficient mice in the fed state exhibit a metabolic profile similar to fasted mice, including increased levels of plasma ketone bodies and free fatty acids, decreased glucose, and increased hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and acyl-CoA oxidase. Dramatic differences in the expression of key metabolic enzymes were also observed in other tissues, and the fat-to-muscle ratio of Txnip-deficient mice was increased by approximately 40%. We demonstrate an effect of Txnip on the redox status, as the Txnip-deficient mice in the fed state had a significant increase in the ratio of NADH to NAD(+). Surprisingly, we observed that Txnip-deficient mice and wild-type mice had similar levels of thioredoxin activity, suggesting that the effects of Txnip deficiency may be mediated in part by other interactions. These results indicate a role for Txnip in the metabolic response to feeding and the maintenance of the redox status.//////////////////
type: naturally occurring
Comment: Positional cloning of the combined hyperlipidemia gene Hyplip1. Bodnar JS et al. (2002) Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL, MIM-144250) is a common, multifactorial and heterogeneous dyslipidemia predisposing to premature coronary artery disease and characterized by elevated plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, or both. We identified a mutant mouse strain, HcB-19/Dem (HcB-19), that shares features with FCHL, including hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, elevated plasma apolipoprotein B and increased secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The hyperlipidemia results from spontaneous mutation at a locus, Hyplip1, on distal mouse chromosome 3 in a region syntenic with a 1q21-q23 FCHL locus identified in Finnish, German, Chinese and US families. We fine-mapped Hyplip1 to roughly 160 kb, constructed a BAC contig and sequenced overlapping BACs to identify 13 candidate genes. We found substantially decreased mRNA expression for thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip). Sequencing of the critical region revealed a Txnip nonsense mutation in HcB-19 that is absent in its normolipidemic parental strains. Txnip encodes a cytoplasmic protein that binds and inhibits thioredoxin, a major regulator of cellular redox state. The mutant mice have decreased CO2 production but increased ketone body synthesis, suggesting that altered redox status down-regulates the citric-acid cycle, sparing fatty acids for triglyceride and ketone body production. These results reveal a new pathway of potential clinical significance that contributes to plasma lipid metabolism.//////////////////