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snail family transcriptional repressor 2 OKDB#: 3920
 Symbols: SNAI2 Species: human
 Synonyms: SLUG, WS2D, SLUGH, SLUGH1, SNAIL2  Locus: 8q11.21 in Homo sapiens

For retrieval of Nucleotide and Amino Acid sequences please go to: OMIM Entrez Gene
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General Comment NCBI Summary: This gene encodes a member of the Snail family of C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factors. The encoded protein acts as a transcriptional repressor that binds to E-box motifs and is also likely to repress E-cadherin transcription in breast carcinoma. This protein is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and has antiapoptotic activity. Mutations in this gene may be associated with sporatic cases of neural tube defects. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
General function Nucleic acid binding, DNA binding, Transcription factor
Cellular localization Cytoplasmic, Nuclear
Ovarian function
Expression regulated by Growth Factors/ cytokines
Comment Bone morphogenetic protein 2 increases lysyl oxidase activity via up-regulation of snail in human granulosa-lutein cells. Bai L et al. (2018) Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a copper-dependent enzyme that maintains and stabilizes the extracellular matrix (ECM) by catalyzing the cross-linking of elastin and collagen. ECM within the ovarian follicle plays a crucial role in regulating follicular development and oocyte maturation. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) belongs to the BMP subfamily that has been shown to be involved in the process of ovarian folliculogenesis and luteal formation. To date, whether BMP2 regulates the activity of LOX during human follicular development remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMP2 on the regulation of LOX expression and activity in human granulosa-lutein cells (hGL) and the underlying mechanisms. Using both primary and immortalized (SVOG cells) hGL cells, we demonstrated that BMP2 up-regulated the expression and activity of LOX and hence decreased the soluble collagens in cultured medium in hGL cells. Additionally, the mRNA and protein levels of two transcriptional factors, SNAIL and SLUG, were increased following cell exposure to BMP2. Knockdown of SNAIL, but not SLUG partially reversed BMP2-induced increases in LOX expression and activity. The BMP2-induced up-regulation of SNAIL expression was abolished by the pre-treatment with two BMP type I receptor inhibitors, dorsomorphin and DMH-1, but not SB431542. Moreover, knockdown of SMAD4 completely abolished BMP2-induced up-regulation of SNAIL expression and the subsequent increases in LOX expression and activity. Our results suggest that BMP2 increases LOX expression and activity via the up-regulation of SNAIL in hGL cells. These findings may provide insights into the functional role of BMP2 in the regulation of ECM formation during folliculogenesis.//////////////////
Ovarian localization Oocyte, Luteal cells, Surface epithelium
Comment Genomewide discovery and classification of candidate ovarian fertility genes in the mouse. Gallardo TD et al. Female infertility syndromes are among the most prevalent chronic health disorders in women, but their genetic basis remains unknown because of uncertainty regarding the number and identity of ovarian factors controlling the assembly, preservation, and maturation of ovarian follicles. To systematically discover ovarian fertility genes en masse, we employed a mouse model (Foxo3) in which follicles are assembled normally but then undergo synchronous activation. We developed a microarray-based approach for the systematic discovery of tissue-specific genes and, by applying it to Foxo3 ovaries and other samples, defined a surprisingly large set of ovarian factors (n = 348, approximately 1% of the mouse genome). This set included the vast majority of known ovarian factors, 44% of which when mutated produce female sterility phenotypes, but most were novel. Comparative profiling of other tissues, including microdissected oocytes and somatic cells, revealed distinct gene classes and provided new insights into oogenesis and ovarian function, demonstrating the utility of our approach for tissue-specific gene discovery. This study will thus facilitate comprehensive analyses of follicle development, ovarian function, and female infertility.
Follicle stages Corpus luteum
Comment Expression and localization of transcription factors SNAIL and SLUG in mouse ovaries and pre-implantation embryos. Guo C 2014 et al. SNAIL and SLUG are zinc-finger transcription factors that participate in the regulation of cell division, cell survival, mesoderm formation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We investigate the expression of SNAIL and SLUG during follicular maturation, ovulation and luteinization in the ovaries of both neonatal mice and gonadotropin-induced immature mice. Furthermore, we examine the expression and localization of these transcription factors during early embryonic cleavage. Our data demonstrate that both SNAIL and SLUG are present in the epithelial cells of the ovarian surface in immature mice. SNAIL is first evident in the interstitial cells and theca cells by postnatal day (PD) 6 and then appears in the oocytes by PD 8, remaining at a constant expression level for all stages studied thereafter. SLUG is expressed in oocytes as early as PD 1. Its expression also increases with the development of the follicles in theca and interstitial cells but not in granulosa cells. In gonadotropin-induced immature mice, both SNAIL and SLUG are expressed in the corpora lutea. During early embryo cleavage, SNAIL occurs in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the majority of the embryo, excluding the nucleolus from the germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) to the 8-cell stage and is then localized in the cytoplasm during the morula stage and in the nucleus during the blastocyst stage. SLUG has an identical expression pattern as SNAIL from GVBD until the morula stage, except that it is localized in the cytoplasm during the blastocyst stage. Taken together, these different localization patterns suggest that SNAIL and SLUG probably play important roles during follicular development, luteinization and early embryonic development. /////////////////////////
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created: Jan. 28, 2009, 10:27 a.m. by: hsueh   email:
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last update: Oct. 16, 2018, 9:57 a.m. by: hsueh    email:

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