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Protein Kinase, Amp-activated, Noncatalytic, Beta-2 OKDB#: 2887
 Symbols: PRKAB2 Species: human
 Synonyms: MGC61468,AMP-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE, NONCATALYTIC, BETA-2|AMPK-BETA-2  Locus: 1q21.1 in Homo sapiens

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General Comment NCBI Summary: The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit may be a positive regulator of AMPK activity. It is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and thus may have tissue-specific roles.
General function Enzyme
Cellular localization Cytoskeleton
Ovarian function Steroid metabolism
Comment AMPK regulates progesterone secretion in rat granulosa cells Tosca L, et al . The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major regulator of energy metabolism involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. In the ovary, cholesterol plays a key role in steroid production. We report the presence of AMPK in rat ovaries and we have investigated its role in granulosa cells. We show using RT-PCR and western-blot that the mRNAs for the alpha1/2 and beta1/2 subunits and the proteins are found in the ovaries. Immunohistochemistry localized the alpha1 AMPK subunit in granulosa cells, corpus luteum, oocyte, and less abundantly in theca cells. Treatment with AICAR (5-amino-imidazole-4-carboxyamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside, 1 mM), an activator of AMPK, increased dose-dependent and time-dependent phosphorylation of AMPKalpha1 on Thr 172 in primary granulosa cells. Simultaneously, phosphorylation of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase at Ser-79 was also increased. AICAR treatment for 48 h halved progesterone secretion, 3beta-HSD protein and mRNA levels and phosphorylation of both basal MAPK ERK1/2 and p38 and in response to IGF-1 and/or FSH in granulosa cells. AICAR treatment (1 mM) had no detectable effect on basal and FSH- and/or IGF-1-induced estradiol production and on granulosa cell proliferation or viability. Adenovirus-mediated expression of dominant negative AMPK totally abolished the effects of AICAR on progesterone secretion, 3beta-HSD protein production, and MAPK ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation. Moreover, we showed using specific inhibitors of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK that the MAPK ERK1/2 and not p38 is involved in progesterone secretion and 3beta-HSD expression, strongly suggesting that the activation of AMPK in response to AICAR reduces progesterone production through the MAPK ERK1/2 signaling pathway in rat granulosa cells.
Expression regulated by
Ovarian localization Granulosa, Luteal cells
Comment AMP-activated protein kinase activation modulates progesterone secretion in granulosa cells from hen preovulatory follicles. Tosca L et al. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a fuel sensor in glucose, lipid, and cholesterol metabolism. Using RT-PCR and Western blot, AMPK subunits mRNAs (alpha1/2, beta1/2, and gamma1/2) and proteins (alpha1/2 and beta1/2) can be found in the hen preovulatory follicles and precisely in both granulosa and theca cells. These preovulatory follicles are organized in a hierarchy according to their size (F5/6 to F1). The smallest number (F1) corresponds to the largest size and the latest mature stage. Phosphorylation of AMPKalpha on Thr172 and of acetyl-CoA carboxylase on Ser79 are higher in F4 and F3 than in F1 granulosa cells. However, they are not affected in F4-F1 theca cells. Treatment with 1 mM 5-amino-imidazole-4-carboxyamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an activator of AMPK, dose dependently increased phosphorylation of AMPKalpha on Thr172 in primary F3/4 and F1 granulosa cells. In the absence of FSH, AICAR treatment increased progesterone, P450 side chain cleavage and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) production in both F3/4 and F1 granulosa cells. However, in the presence of FSH, AICAR treatment for 36 h increased progesterone secretion, StAR protein levels and reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation in F3/4 granulosa cells. Opposite data were observed in F1 granulosa cells. Adenovirus-mediated expression of dominant-negative AMPK totally restored the effects of AICAR on FSH-induced progesterone secretion, StAR protein production, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in F3/4 and F1 granulosa cells. Using a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2 (U0126), we also showed that this kinase is a negative regulator of the FSH-induced progesterone secretion in F3/4 and F1 granulosa cells, suggesting that AICAR-mediated AMPK activation modifies FSH-induced progesterone secretion differently through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in hen F3/4 and F1 granulosa cells.
Follicle stages Antral, Preovulatory, Corpus luteum
Mutations 0 mutations
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created: July 20, 2005, 2:38 p.m. by: hsueh   email:
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last update: July 19, 2006, 9:22 a.m. by: hsueh    email:

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