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phosphofructokinase, platelet OKDB#: 2727
 Symbols: PFKP Species: human
 Synonyms: PFKF, PFK-C, PFK-P, ATP-PFK  Locus: 10p15.3-p15.2 in Homo sapiens

For retrieval of Nucleotide and Amino Acid sequences please go to: OMIM Entrez Gene
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General Comment NCBI Summary: The PFKP gene encodes the platelet isoform of phosphofructokinase (PFK) (ATP:D-fructose-6-phosphate-1-phosphotransferase, EC PFK catalyzes the irreversible conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and is a key regulatory enzyme in glycolysis. The PFKP gene, which maps to chromosome 10p, is also expressed in fibroblasts. See also the muscle (PFKM; MIM 610681) and liver (PFKL; MIM 171860) isoforms of phosphofructokinase, which map to chromosomes 12q13 and 21q22, respectively. Vora (1981) [PubMed 6451249] determined that full tetrameric phophofructokinase enzyme expressed in platelets can be composed of subunits P4, P3L, and P2L2.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
General function DNA Replication, Metabolism, Enzyme
Cellular localization Cytoplasmic
Ovarian function Oocyte maturation, Early embryo development
Comment Phosphofructokinase and malate dehydrogenase participate in the in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes. Breininger E et al. (2014) Oocyte maturation depends on the metabolic activity of cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) that performs nutritive and regulatory functions during this process. In this work, the enzymes phosphofructokinase (PFK) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH)] were tested to elucidate the metabolic profile of porcine COCs during the in vitro maturation (IVM). Enzymatic activity was expressed in U/COC and U/mg protein (specific activity) as mean ± SEM. In vitro maturation was performed with 2-oxoglutarate (5, 10 and 20 mm) or hydroxymalonate (30, 60 and 100 mm) inhibitors of PFK and MDH, respectively. The PFK and MDH activities (U) remained constant during maturation. For PFK, the U were (2.48 ± 0.23) 10(-5) and (2.54 ± 0.32) 10(-5) , and for MDH, the U were (4.72 ± 0.42) 10(-5) and (4.38 ± 0.25) 10(-5) for immature and in vitro matured COCs, respectively. The specific activities were significantly lower after IVM, for PFK (4.29 ± 0.48) 10(-3) and (0.94 ± 0.12) 10(-3) , and for MDH (9.08 ± 0.93) 10(-3) and (1.89 ± 0.10) 10(-3) for immature and in vitro matured COCs, respectively. In vitro maturation percentages and enzymatic activity diminished with 20 mm 2-oxoglutarate or 60 mm hydroxymalonate (p < 0.05). Viability was not affected by any concentration of the inhibitors evaluated. The U remained unchanged during IVM; however, the increase in the total protein content per COC provoked a decrease in the specific activity of both enzymes. Phosphofructokinase and MDH necessary for oocyte IVM would be already present in the immature oocyte. The presence of inhibitors of these enzymes impairs the meiotic maturation. Therefore, the participation of these enzymes in the energy metabolism of the porcine oocyte during IVM is confirmed in this study.////////////////// Oocyte-derived BMP15 and FGFs cooperate to promote glycolysis in cumulus cells. [Sugiura K et al. Mammalian oocytes are deficient in their ability to carry out glycolysis. Therefore, the products of glycolysis that are necessary for oocyte development are provided to oocytes by companion cumulus cells. Mouse oocytes secrete paracrine factors that promote glycolysis in cumulus cells. The objective of this study was to identify paracrine factors secreted by oocytes that promote glycolysis and expression of mRNA encoding the glycolytic enzymes PFKP and LDHA. Candidates included growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). Bmp15(-/-) and Gdf9(+/-) Bmp15(-/-) (double mutant, DM) cumulus cells exhibited reduced levels of both glycolysis and Pfkp and Ldha mRNA, and mutant oocytes were deficient in promoting glycolysis and expression of Pfkp and Ldha mRNA in cumulus cells of wild-type (WT) mice. Alone, neither recombinant BMP15, GDF9 nor FGF8 promoted glycolysis and expression of Pfkp and Ldha mRNA in WT cumulus cells. Co-treatment with BMP15 and FGF8 promoted glycolysis and increased expression of Pfkp and Ldha mRNA in WT cumulus cells to the same levels as WT oocytes; however, the combinations of BMP15/GDF9 or GDF9/FGF8 did not. Furthermore, SU5402, an FGF receptor-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, inhibited Pfkp and Ldha expression in cumulus cells promoted by paracrine oocyte factors. Therefore, oocyte-derived BMP15 and FGFs cooperate to promote glycolysis in cumulus cells. Human cumulus cell gene expression as a biomarker of pregnancy outcome after single embryo transfer. Gebhardt KM et al. OBJECTIVE: To identify the cumulus cell gene expression associated with oocyte developmental competence, specifically live birth, after single ET (SET) assisted reproductive technology. DESIGN: Retrospective gene expression analysis in human cumulus cells from oocytes that established a pregnancy resulting in live birth versus no pregnancy after SET. SETTING: Independent IVF clinic and research institute. PATIENT(S): Women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection with SET. INTERVENTION(S): Quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on cumulus masses collected before insemination. Oocytes and embryos were cultured and transferred independently in 38 patients undergoing elective SET. Paired cumulus samples from oocytes that developed into high- versus low-grade embryos also were compared. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Gene expression profiles of metabolic (ALDOA, LDHA, PFKP, PKM2), signaling (AHR, GREM1, PTGS2, STS), extracellular matrix (HAS2, PTX3, TNFAIP6, VCAN), and loading control GAPDH in individual cumulus masses. RESULT(S): VCAN and PTGS2 mRNA expression was significantly higher in cumulus cells from oocytes yielding a pregnancy resulting in a live birth, while PTX3 mRNA expression trended toward higher expression in pregnant samples. Cumulus cell levels of VCAN, GREM1, and PFKP correlated with birth weight in patients at 38 weeks of gestation. No genes correlated with clinical embryo morphology scores. CONCLUSION(S): Cumulus cell VCAN, PTGS2, GREM1, and PFKP expression may identify oocytes with high developmental potential, leading to enhanced implantation rates and greater developmental capacity throughout gestation.
Expression regulated by Growth Factors/ cytokines, BMP15, FGF8
Ovarian localization Cumulus, Granulosa
Comment Effects of porcine oocytes on the expression levels of transcripts encoding glycolytic enzymes in granulosa cells. Matsuno Y et al. (2015) Oocytes play critical roles in regulating the expression of transcripts encoding the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase, platelet (PFKP) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) in granulosa cells in mice, but whether this is the case in pigs or other mammals has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether porcine oocytes regulate the expression levels of these transcripts in granulosa cells in vitro. Porcine cumulus cells expressed higher levels of PFKP and LDHA transcripts than mural granulosa cells (MGCs). However, co-culturing with oocytes had no significant effect on the isolated cumulus cells. While murine oocytes promoted the expression of both Pfkp and Ldha transcripts by murine MGCs, porcine oocytes promoted the expression of only Pfkp, but not Ldha transcripts by murine MGCs. Neither murine nor porcine oocytes affected PFKP and LDHA expression by porcine MGCs. Moreover, in the presence of porcine follicular fluid, porcine oocytes maintained the expression of PFKP, but not LDHA by porcine cumulus cells. Therefore, porcine oocytes are capable of regulating the expression of PFKP but not LDHA in granulosa cells in coordination with unknown factor(s) present in the follicular fluid.////////////////// Oocyte control of metabolic cooperativity between oocytes and companion granulosa cells: energy metabolism Sugiura K, et al 2005 . Intercellular communication between oocytes and granulosa cells is essential for normal follicular differentiation and oocyte development. Subtraction hybridization was used to identify genes more highly expressed in cumulus cells than in mural granulosa cells of mouse antral follicles. This screen identified six genes involved in glycolysis: Eno1, Pkm2, Tpi, Aldoa, Ldh1, and Pfkp. When oocytes were microsurgically removed from cumulus cell-oocyte complexes, the isolated cumulus cells exhibited decreased expression levels of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes, glycolysis and activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. These decreases were prevented by culturing the cumulus cells with paracrine factors secreted by fully grown oocytes. Paracrine factors from fully grown oocytes exhibited greater ability than those from growing oocytes to promote expression of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes and glycolysis in the granulosa cells of preantral follicles. However, neither fully grown nor growing oocytes secreted paracrine factors affecting activity of the TCA cycle. These results indicate that oocytes regulate glycolysis and the TCA cycle in granulosa cells in a manner specific to the population of granulosa cells and to the stage of growth and development of the oocyte. Oocytes control glycolysis in granulosa cells by regulating expression levels of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes. Therefore, mouse oocytes control the intercellular metabolic cooperativity between cumulus cells and oocytes needed for energy production by granulosa cells and required for oocyte and follicular development.
Follicle stages Antral
Mutations 0 mutations
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created: Feb. 16, 2005, 5:43 p.m. by: hsueh   email:
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last update: Nov. 17, 2015, 11:13 a.m. by: hsueh    email:

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