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Transforming Growth Factor, Beta-3 OKDB#: 2121
 Symbols: TGFB3 Species: human
 Synonyms:  Locus: 14q24 in Homo sapiens

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General Comment Type beta transforming growth factors are polypeptides that act hormonally to control the proliferation and differentiation of multiple cell types. A cDNA clone for a third form of TGFB was isolated by ten Dijke et al. (1988). The C-terminal 112 amino acids of TGF-beta-3 share approximately 80% sequence identity with beta-1 (190180) and beta-2 (190220).

General function Ligand, Growth factor
Cellular localization Secreted
Ovarian function Follicle development, Steroid metabolism
Comment Steroidogenic Factor-1 Is Required for TGF-{beta}3-Mediated 17{beta}-Estradiol Synthesis in Mouse Ovarian Granulosa Cells. Liang N et al. The TGF-?superfamily members are indicated to play key roles in ovarian follicular development, such as granulosa cell proliferation, estrogens, and progesterone production. However, little is known about the roles of TGF-? in follicular development. In this study, we found that TGF-? was predominantly expressed in granulosa cells of mouse ovarian follicles, and it significantly promoted 17?estradiol (E(2)) release in a dose-dependent manner. The orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) was required in TGF-?-induced Cyp19a1 (a key rate-limiting enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis) expression and E(2) release. Additionally, TGF-? enhanced the binding of SF-1 to endogenous ovary-specific Cyp19a1 type II promoter, as evidenced by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. The enhanced effect of SF-1 by TGF-? may be mediated through functional interactions between SF-1 and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)3 (a mediator of TGF-?signaling pathway), because disruption of the interaction abolished the synergistic effects of SF-1, Smad3, and TGF-? on Cyp19a1 mRNA expression. RNA interference and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies also demonstrated that Smad3 was required for SF-1 binding to Cyp19a1 type II promoter and activation of Cyp19a1. Smad3 thus acts as a point of convergence that involves integration of SF-1 and TGF-?signaling in affecting E(2) production. Taken together, our data provide mechanistic insights into the roles of SF-1 in TGF-?-mediated E(2) synthesis. Understanding of potential cross-points between extracellular signals affecting estrogen production will help to discover new therapeutic targets in estrogen-related diseases.
Expression regulated by
Ovarian localization Cumulus, Granulosa, Theca
Comment Differential expression of GDF9, TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 in porcine oocytes isolated from follicles of different size before and after culture in vitro. Jackowska M et al. The TGFB superfamily genes are involved in several important cell functions, including proliferation and differentiation, and the role of the expression of these genes in growth and development of theca and granulosa cells is well recognised. However, the dependence between the stage of oocyte maturation or follicular size and the expression of these genes in pigs is still not entirely known. This study was aimed at investigating the expression pattern of GDF9, TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 in porcine oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM) as well as in oocytes collected from follicles of different sizes. RQ-PCR was performed to analyse the expression of GDF9, TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 in oocytes before and after IVM (oocytes cultured for 44 h in TCM-199), isolated from large (> 5 mm), medium (3-5 mm) and small (< 3 mm) follicles collected from ovaries of 28 puberal crossbred Landrace gilts after slaughter. We found an increased expression of both TGFB1 and TGFB2 in oocytes before IVM collected from large as compared to medium and small follicles (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). In these groups of oocytes we did not observe differences in GDF9 and TGFB3 mRNA levels. However, after IVM, GDF9 protein distribution in oocytes was significantly higher in large and medium follicles as compared to small ones (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, an increased TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 proteins pattern was observed in oocytes of large compared to small follicles. The highest GDF9 and TGFB1 mRNA levels were found in oocytes after IVM compared to those before IVM. Based on our study we can suppose that the distribution pattern of TGFB superfamily genes is associated with the stage of maturation of porcine oocytes and the follicle size. Furthermore, GDF9 and TGFB1 may serve as molecular markers of the develop-mental potential of porcine oocytes. The confocal microscopic observation revealed that TGFB1 and TGFB3 were translocated between the zona and the cytoplasm of oocytes, depending on the stage of maturation and follicle size. Transforming growth factor-beta isoform expression during bovine ovarian antral follicle development. Nilsson EE, et al 2003 . Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) isoforms are important paracrine and autocrine signaling molecules for the regulation of ovarian follicle growth and physiology. Effective communication between the epithelial granulosa cells, the mesenchymal theca cells, and the oocyte is vital for ovarian function and reproductive success. The expression, localization, and regulation of TGF-beta isoforms in the developing bovine follicle was examined using both immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedures. TGF-beta1 protein was found to be present in the granulosa cells of early pre-antral, early antral, and 1-2 mm follicles. Interestingly, there was no visible staining of granulosa cells of 3-5 or 5-10 mm follicles. There was also no TGF-beta1 staining of theca cells. TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 staining were present in the granulosa and theca cells of all follicle stages examined. The levels of TGF-beta mRNA expression in granulosa and theca cells from antral follicles was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. For each isoform mRNA expression levels did not change in different sized antral follicles. TGF-beta3 mRNA levels were much higher than those of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 in both granulosa and theca. Expression levels were higher in theca than in granulosa for TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3. FSH was found to decrease TGF-beta1 mRNA expression in granulosa cells, but had no effect on TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3. Bovine ovarian follicles were found to have a unique pattern of TGF-beta isoform expression and regulation when compared to other species (i.e., rodent, pig, quail, and human). The similarities and differences between the various species is discussed to help elucidate common functions of TGF-beta in the ovary. In summary, observations demonstrate that as antral follicles develop, TGF-beta3 is the most abundant TGF-beta isoform and TGF-beta1 protein levels decline in large follicles. Granulosa cell TGF-beta1 expression was decreased by FSH and this correlated with reduced levels in large antral follicles. TGF-betas involved in antral follicular growth and development appear to act as paracrine/autocrine signaling molecules having a species-specific pattern of expression.
Follicle stages Antral
Comment Expression of transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-beta3) in the porcine ovary during the oestrus cycle. Steffl M et al. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) proteins are growth factors that have been shown to be involved in regulation of ovarian follicular development. Ovarian expression, activity and functional significance of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 isoforms were extensively studied in most species. However, little is known about the biological role of TGF-beta3 previously shown to be expressed independently of the other two isoforms. Therefore, expression of TGF-beta3 mRNA and protein was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in porcine ovaries collected during different phases of the oestrus cycle. Results of RT-PCR analysis showed that TGF-beta3 mRNA is expressed throughout the oestrus cycle. The level of TGF-beta3 mRNA expression was found to be higher at metoestrus and dioestrus. Weak TGF-beta3 immunoreactivity was present in follicular epithelial cells and oocytes of preantral follicles in all stages examined. TGF-beta3 protein expression was exclusively present in theca interna cell layer of antral follicles, and was particularly prominent in large antral follicles. Immediately after ovulation, almost all theca cells outside of the granulosa cell layer were intensively stained with anti-TGF-beta3. Immunostaining of TGF-beta3 in theca lutein cells rapidly decreased during corpus luteum development. It is suggested that TGF-beta3 may play an important role in modulating theca cell function of pre- and postovulatory follicles of the pig.
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created: Sept. 24, 2003, 2:46 p.m. by: hsueh   email:
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last update: March 1, 2013, 11:44 a.m. by: hsueh    email:

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