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since 01/2001:

 Symbols: CYTOCHROME C Species: human
 Synonyms:  Locus:

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DNA Microarrays
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General Comment This enzyme is located in the mitochondria of all aerobic cells. It is involved in the electron transport system that functions in oxidative phosphorylation. It accepts electrons from cytochrome b and transfers them to cytochrome oxidase. In the process the iron of the heme group (which is identical to that of hemoglobin and myoglobin) shifts from the ferrous to the ferric state. Human cytochrome c has 104 amino acid residues and a molecular weight of 11,458. In addition to its role in oxidative phosphorylation, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrial intermembrane space results in nuclear apoptosis.

NCBI Summary: This gene encodes cytochrome c, a component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. The heme group of cytochrome c accepts electrons from the b-c1 complex and transfers electrons to the cytochrome oxidase complex. Cytochrome c is also involved in initiation of apoptosis. Upon release of cytochrome c to the cytoplasm, the protein binds apoptotic protease activating factor which activates the apoptotic initiator procaspase 9. Many cytochrome c pseudogenes exist, scattered throughout the human genome.
General function Cell death/survival, Apoptosis, Energy pathways
Cellular localization Mitochondrial
Ovarian function Follicle atresia
Expression regulated by
Ovarian localization Primordial Germ Cell, Oocyte, Cumulus, Granulosa, Theca, Luteal cells, Small luteal cells, Large luteal cells, Stromal cells, Surface epithelium
Comment D'Herde K, et al 2000 reported that ultrastructural localization of cytochrome c in apoptosis demonstrates mitochondrial heterogeneity. Release of apoptogenic factors into the cytosol including cytochrome c is triggering the execution phase of apoptosis through activation of cytoplasmic effector caspases. How loss of function of the electron transport chain can be reconciled with an adequate energy supply necessary for executing the apoptotic program was studied in granulosa cell (GC) sheets cultured up to 72 h without gonadotrophic support. Cytochrome c was localized ultrastructurally by oxidation of diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride both in living and fixed cells. In uncultured GC sheets all cells show staining over their entire mitochondrial population. In 72 h cultured sheets in the absence of FSH pre-apoptotic GC's display two subsets of mitochondria: normal sized stained mitochondria and small orthodox mitochondria without demonstrable cytochrome function. Apoptotic cells contain several mitochondria with preservation of respiratory function besides unstained orthodox mitochondria. The cytochrome c containing mitochondria typically display dilated intracristal spaces, a mitochondrial conformation related to increased ATP production. Cytochrome c release was confirmed by Western blotting. In 72 h cultures supplemented with FSH, GC's displayed staining over their entire mitochondrial population. In cultures lacking FSH, but partially protected from apoptosis through caspase inhibition, the cytochrome c release was not inhibited. Krysko DV, et al 2001 reported that mitochondrial transmembrane potential changes support the concept of mitochondrial heterogeneity during apoptosis.
Follicle stages Primordial, Primary, Secondary, Antral, Preovulatory, Corpus luteum
Mutations 0 mutations
Genomic Region show genomic region
Phenotypes and GWAS show phenotypes and GWAS
OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man: an excellent source of general gene description and genetic information.)
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created: Oct. 10, 2001, 8:51 a.m. by: hsueh   email:
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last update: Oct. 10, 2001, 8:51 a.m. by: system    email:

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